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Un Sustainability Agreement

Education for Sustainable Development (SED) is explicitly recognized in the SDGs as part of the SDG`s 4.7 goal for education. UNESCO promotes Global Civic Education (GCED) as a complementary approach. [70] At the same time, it is important to stress the importance of ESD for the other 16 SDGs. With the overall goal of developing cross-cutting sustainable development skills among learners, ESD is an essential contribution to all efforts to achieve the SDGs. This would enable individuals to contribute to sustainable development by encouraging social, economic and political change and changing their own behaviour. [71] The SDGs can simply maintain the status quo and fail to achieve the ambitious development agenda. The current status quo has been described as “the separation of human well-being and environmental sustainability, the lack of governance change and the focus on compromises, the causes of poverty and environmental degradation, and social justice issues.” [127] The Paris Agreement is an ambitious, dynamic and universal agreement. It covers all countries and emissions and is designed for total time. This is a monumental agreement.

It strengthens international cooperation on climate change. It offers a way forward. Its 193 member states and global civil society participated in the UN-led process. The resolution is a comprehensive intergovernmental agreement that serves as a post-2015 development agenda. The SDGs are based on the principles of Inresolution A/RES/66/288, entitled “The Future We Want.” [122] This was a non-binding document published following the 2012 Rio-20 conference. [122] We have an agreement and we now have the chance to achieve our goal. We cannot say that without an agreement. The Paris Agreement will allow us to reach the target of 2 degrees Celsius or less. We did not expect to leave Paris with commitments to achieve this goal, but with a process that will lead us to it.

And that is what the agreement provides. The environmental requirements and limits of the planets are under-represented within the SDGs. For example, “Making the Sustainable Development Goals with Sustainability”[130] indicates that the way current SDGs are structured leads to a negative correlation between environmental sustainability and the SDGs. Because the SDGs are under-represented in terms of environmental sustainability, resource security is threatened for all, especially for low-income people. This is not a critique of the SDGs per se, but an awareness that their environmental conditions remain fragile. [129] The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century. The agreement also aims to strengthen countries` capacity to cope with the effects of climate change through appropriate financial flows, a new technology framework and an improved capacity-building framework. This agreement is a clear invitation from governments to be ready to implement the 2030 sustainable development agenda. Sustained global economic growth of 3% (goal 8) may not be linked to environmental sustainable development goals, as the overall ecological decoupling rate required is much higher than in the past. [129] Anthropologists have suggested that the targets, instead of targeting aggregate GDP growth, could be for the use of resources per capita, with “significant reductions in high-income countries.” [129] A commentary published in The Economist in 2015 indicated that the SDGs were “a mess” compared to the eight MDGs used so far. [80] Others have pointed to the SDGs as a shift from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and highlight the related environmental, social and economic aspects of development with a focus on sustainability. [127] The agreement provides a way forward to limit the temperature increase to a level well below 2 degrees, perhaps even 1.5 degrees.

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